Window Impact Rating Scale – In 1992, Hurricane Andrew hit Florida, causing an estimated $25 billion in damage. This has become a wake-up call for the construction industry.
Insufficient height of wind power zones; Non-compliance with existing standards and non-compliance with codes. As a result, missile testing standards were developed and stricter building codes are now in place.
Window Impact Rating Scale
Because of the storm’s small size, the damage caused by Andrew spread over a very narrow area of southern Florida. But the narrow path of destruction that Andrew has carved is wide and deadly. An estimated 150,000 to 250,000 people were left homeless in South Florida, where the storm killed a total of 65 people. Strong winds from Andrew. A total of 600,000 homes and businesses were destroyed or severely damaged by waves and rain.
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Andrews Landing Ground Zero on August 24, 1992, Homestead. Almost all mobile homes in Florida were destroyed. At the same time, damage to multiple boats in South Florida was estimated at half a billion dollars. Much of South Florida’s communications and transportation infrastructure, power and utilities, and sewage treatment plants are severely out of service. It was significantly affected when water and other essentials were lost.
A total of 1.4 million customers lost power after the storm. Residents were without power for six months after the storm. When Andrew landed in Louisiana for the second time, it caused extensive damage to offshore oil facilities and caused another $1 billion in losses. Andrew’s damage in South Florida and Louisiana totaled $26 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in US history.
The social impact on South Florida was enormous. It is important to remember that prior to Hurricane Andrew, a generation of South Florida residents had never experienced a hurricane. Also, more and more people are moving to the area and there has never been a single tropical storm or hurricane.
With the death and destruction caused by the storm, it was a very traumatic experience for residents. Many decided to move to a safer part of the country, while others decided to try to rebuild their homes and businesses. It took many years to complete this process.
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On the positive side, Andrew issued a major hurricane warning, forcing many Floridians to take extra precautions before the storm hit the coast. That’s not to say Florida’s preparation isn’t bad. Indeed, if it weren’t for the combined efforts of emergency management personnel and hurricane preparedness and evacuation programs. More lives can be lost.
South Florida continues to improve its preparedness standards with revised building codes, a clear concern due to Hurricane Andrew. Building codes in South Florida are among the strictest in the nation today.
Tropical storms and hurricanes arise from tropical storms moving across the Atlantic towards the US coast.
• Tropical Disturbance: An area of convection originating in a tropical region that is identified and sustained for 24 hours or more. tropical depression It is the first stage of development of a tropical storm or hurricane.
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• Tropical Storm: A strong storm that tends to form over the ocean rather than the tropical ocean. When wind speeds of 39 mph are reached, a tropical storm is officially called a tropical storm.
•Hurricane: A tropical storm takes the form of a cyclone when sustained wind speeds of 74 miles per hour or greater are attained. A storm’s eye is typically 20 to 30 miles wide and can be over 400 miles long. Severe hurricane winds can cause moderate to severe damage to buildings and flooding in coastal areas.
We’ve all heard of a “Category 5” hurricane. The Saffir-Simpson Scale ranks hurricanes based on sustained wind speed and damage.
119-153/74-95 Very dangerous winds cause some damage. Well-built frame houses have a roof, corrugated vinyl siding and gutters can be damaged. Large branches can break and uprooted trees can fall over. Power lines and poles can be severely damaged and power outages are expected for a few to several days.
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154-177/96-110 Very dangerous wind that does great damage. Well-constructed frame houses can suffer extensive damage to the roof and side walls. Many uprooted trees are felled or uprooted and many roads are blocked. An almost complete power outage is expected, which can last from several days to weeks.
178-208/111-129 Heavy damage will occur. Well-built frame houses can cause extensive damage or the removal of eaves and gable ends. Many trees were felled or uprooted and many roads were blocked. Electricity and water can go out for days or weeks after a storm.
209-251/130-156 Catastrophic damage will occur. Well-constructed half-timbered houses can suffer severe damage from the loss of part of the roof structure and/or exterior walls. Many trees will be felled or uprooted and power poles will fall. Fallen trees and power poles separate residential areas. Power outages can last weeks to months. Most areas are uninhabitable for weeks or months.
252+/157+ catastrophic damage will occur. A high percentage of framed houses suffer damage, including complete roof damage and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles separate residential areas. Power outages can last weeks to months. Most areas are uninhabitable for weeks or months.
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This map tracks all tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic and Pacific regions of the United States since 1842.
Windblown Debris – Projectiles suspended in the air that cause glass fragments and other damage to buildings in strong winds. This is one of the main causes of damage during hurricanes. Here we will focus on mitigating hurricane resistant windows and doors.
• ASTM E1886/1996 National Consensus Test Method and Specification for Effects of Wind Blow Debris While Hurricanes (ASTM, 2002; ASTM, 2002a).
Debris on the window and debris in the window When a window breaks, water and debris are blown into your home. Flying glass and debris can cause serious injury and death. Fill up
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The consequence of broken windows is that they allow a lot of water and wind to enter your home.
Wind Forces When Installing Windows: Three common problems in large homes are that the glass is not properly attached to the sash to withstand the wind pressure; Don’t hide in your belt; Window frames are often not fastened well enough. A house that can withstand strong winds. A 50 mph wind can only push a window or door with a force of 5 to 7 pounds per square foot. A 100 mph wind can blow 20 to 28 pounds per square foot. Winds from 130 mph to 34 to 47 mph. Square feet These forces act on every square foot of a window. This means that for a bedroom window that is 3 feet wide and 5 feet long in a 100 mph wind, between 300 and 420 pounds of force will be exerted on the window and frame. Think of 2 men or 3 women sitting by the window.
Windows and doors that have been tested and rated for high water resistance perform better and allow little or no water into the structure.
1. A base wind speed equal to or greater than 130 miles per hour within one mile of shore means high tide in Hawaii, or
Ratings And Benchmarks
Case, IMPACT RESISTANCE: Shields shown by test methods to withstand the impact of anti-aircraft missiles likely to be generated in areas of windblown debris during draft winds.
Impact Resistant Enclosure: A shielding enclosure that has been shown by an agency-accepted test method to withstand the impact of anti-aircraft missiles likely to be generated in windblown debris regions during design winds.
2. Exposed terra cotta is permitted over 60 feet above ground and 1500 feet of roof debris of building surface totaling 30 feet.
ASCE 7-10 includes several important changes in wind turbine design. Changes include new wind speed maps differentiated by hazard category (e.g. separate maps are provided for each of the following hazard categories: I, II and III and IV).
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The result of these changes is that design velocity pressures are reduced in some hurricane-prone regions, while design velocity pressures in non-hurricane regions remain largely unchanged.
All previous versions of ASCE 7-10 were based on calculating design stresses using Allowable Stress Design (ASD). ASCE 7-10 is the first edition of the standard based on Ultimate Strength Design (USD).
Wind speed on new maps
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